The basic idea for this project came from veteran Crosby admirer, Fred Reynolds, during a meeting at his house in March 1992. Fred was explaining to author Gary Giddins how he had drawn up a detailed chronology of Bing's life, which in fact had been shown to Bing in 1961. I said then that it would make interesting reading for Bing followers everywhere, but we did not take it any further because Fred was in the middle of putting together his marvellous series of books The Crosby Collection.
It was Roger Osterholm who was the catalyst for me to sit down in 1995 and start to draw together information from every possible source about Bing's life. Roger's book Bing Crosby: a Bio-Bibliography contained a brief chronology, and starting with this, I added more details of Bing's recording career, his radio shows and his films. Every magazine issued about Bing for the last 40 years was scoured for dates and I re-read all of the books about Bing that I could lay my hands on. I was amazed by the mass of inconsistencies and errors, and I tried to go back to contemporaneous records whenever possible to verify doubtful data. The New York Times gave me a start and then Variety magazine brought clarification of vague interludes in Bing's life. A visit to Gonzaga University in June, 1996 was an important piece in the jigsaw and then input from Fred Reynolds himself brought me full circle. Gary Hamann's publication Bing Crosby in the Thirties added important information and Gary also gave me more data which I would not otherwise have found. However, there are too many people and reference sources to acknowledge at this point, so please refer to the separate appendix for details of those who helped bring this project to fruition.
What follows is a detailed chronology of Bing's life, which I can confidently say is the most detailed and accurate account ever of his existence in terms of day-to-day activities. I have learned so much from the work of collating the facts and I am sure that everyone will discover something from this tome. If ever a scriptwriter wanted a basic outline of Bing's life around which to weave a script, he need look no further than this diary. Of course, this first attempt is exactly that. It is made for others to follow behind and fill in the gaps and correct or expand information. Also it should be read in conjunction with the separate detailed books about Bing's films and his recording career, plus the various directories of his radio shows. Please do not hesitate to advise me of missing dates and events, as I shall continually update the 'diary' in readiness for any further reprints.
The picture created of Bing by this publication is of a hard-working man from an ordinary background who throughout his life was involved in charitable work. His passion for sports stands out and you may be surprised to read of his poor health in his later years. The various key dates in his family life are highlighted and it is not hard to imagine the pressures on Bing at certain times. I hope that you will find it as fascinating as I did as you trace Bing's life from his childhood, through his early show business career to the peak years when he was, arguably, the most famous man in the world. The change in his life in the 1950s and his reduced involvement in show-business activities is documented, with the final years providing a glorious finish to an incredible life. This is not just a diary of a lifetime, but it is a record of one of the most important figures in the show business world during the twentieth century.
1903 - 1925 The Early Years
Precise dates relating to Bing's early life are hard to come by and we have to rely on his autobiography plus other biographies for much of the outline. Certain facts were gleaned from the archives at Gonzaga University and overall we gain an impression of a man brought up in a large family in which the Roman Catholic Church played a major part. Bing's father was said to have been a happy-go-lucky character who was somewhat imprudent with money, whilst his mother was the strict disciplinarian who undoubtedly influenced Bing considerably. Bing was introduced to activities such as fishing by his father, but it was his mother who ensured that religious faith played a large part in Bing's daily life. From the age of three until he was 22, Bing lived in a pleasant, mainly Catholic, area in Spokane, Washington. He would probably have had the same friends through grade school, high school and then University. For pocket money, he had a variety of jobs and as a 13 year old he became an altar boy.
The important part played in his formative years by the Jesuit priests at Gonzaga was always acknowledged by Bing and as we examine the key dates of his time there, we can see how first he was heavily involved in sporting activities and then worked his way through elocution and debating to drama, where the drug of applause would have well and truly entered his system. His early forays into singing and comedy can be seen and then in the academic year he was due to graduate from Gonzaga University, he had a starring role in a play and also started to earn good money as one of the Musicaladers. One can imagine that final year as he fell behind with his studies and perhaps realised that his chances of graduating that year were receding. The lure of show business finally convinced him to drop out of University and then he struggled for a while after the Musicaladers disbanded, before picking up work in the Clemmer Theatre with the 17 year-old Al Rinker as his accompanist. They realised that the Spokane area was limited as regards a show business career and eventually they plucked up the courage to travel 1,500 miles to Los Angeles in an open Model-T Ford. There they sought work and Bing's real show business career began.
1926 - 1930 The Apprentice
Bing and Al Rinker began as a minor part of The Syncopation Idea, a short revue put out by the Fanchon and Marco organisation and it was there that they started to develop as entertainers. They had a lively and individual style and they were particularly popular with college students. After The Syncopation Idea closed, Bing and Al obtained work in the Will Morrissey Music Hall Revue which must have been fascinating if insecure. However, their skills were further honed during their time with Morrissey and when they subsequently had the chance to present their own independent act they blossomed and were quickly spotted by the Paul Whiteman organisation. At that time, it was felt that Whiteman needed something different and entertaining to break up the musical selections he was presenting and Crosby and Rinker filled this gap admirably. After less than a year in full time show business, they had become part of one of the biggest names in the entertainment world. We can imagine their pride when they returned to Spokane to entertain for a week at the Liberty Theatre before going off to join Whiteman in Chicago.
Initial successes with Whiteman were followed by disaster when they reached New York and for a while Whiteman must have thought of letting them go. Possibly Bing might have been retained as Whiteman was already using him as a solo performer on record, but the prospects for Rinker must have been bleak. However, the addition of Harry Barris made all the difference to the act and the Rhythm Boys were born. The additional voice meant that the boys could be heard more easily in the large New York theatres and they quickly became a real success. A year touring with Whiteman provided valuable experience and then they were sent out on tour alone. Much has been written about the escapades of the three men during this period and clearly they were living life to the full. Despite all of this, Bing was continuing to develop and when the Rhythm Boys rejoined the Whiteman troupe in 1929, he had matured considerably as a performer. He was constantly in demand as a solo artist on record and radio. An offer to go out on his own was, however, refused by Bing and he stayed faithful to the Rhythm Boys. Perhaps he simply felt more secure as a member of a group and a similar trait was exhibited some years later when he refused to accept single star billing in films.
The famous trip to Hollywood in mid-1929 aboard the Whiteman Old Gold Special followed and Bing started to become noticed in Hollywood. Early screen tests were unsuccessful but the Rhythm Boys carved out a reputation as they starred at the Montmartre Cafe for several weeks. The delays in filming The King of Jazz led Whiteman and the Rhythm Boys to return to the east coast for a while, but then they all returned to California at the end of October 1929 to finally begin filming. Around this time, Bing was jailed following a car crash as he had been drinking and he lost a solo spot in The King of Jazz to John Boles. The Rhythm Boys did however have a couple of featured spots in the film and Bing also sang over the opening titles. After completing filming, Whiteman took his troupe up the west coast to Seattle prior to returning east for the New York premiere of The King of Jazz. New evidence suggests that Bing and the Rhythm Boys left Whiteman in New York and returned to Los Angeles.
Although some books indicate that the act then went into the Montmartre, there may be confusion with their earlier appearance there in 1929. They did appear on local radio and sing for film sound tracks, but it was not until they went into the Cocoanut Grove at the Ambassador Hotel "that the action picked up a little" to quote Bing. Singing with the Gus Arnheim orchestra, Bing's solos began to steal the show, whilst the Rhythm Boys act gradually became less important. His apprenticeship was well and truly over.
Details of Bing's earnings are quoted in several places and it should be noted that $100 in 1929 was equivalent to $700 in 1990.
1931 - 1939 The Making of the Legend
In the early months of 1931, a solo recording contract came Bing's way, Mack Sennett signed him to make film shorts and a break with the Rhythm Boys became almost inevitable. Bing had married Dixie Lee in September 1930 and after a threatened divorce in March 1931, he started to apply himself seriously to his career. His gramophone records in 1931 broke new ground as his powerful and emotional singing started to change the face of popular music forever. Their low salaries at the Cocoanut Grove of the Ambassador Hotel led the Rhythm Boys to walk out, causing union problems for Bing. Everett Crosby interested Bill Paley of CBS in his brother and Paley beckoned Bing to come to New York. A settlement was reached with the Ambassador Hotel and Bing made his first solo national radio broadcast in September 1931 and then went on to star at the New York Paramount Theatre. His first commercial sponsor on radio was Cremo Cigars and increasingly his fame spread nation-wide. After a long run in New York, Bing went back to Hollywood to film The Big Broadcast and his personal appearances, his records and his radio appearances substantially increased his impact.
The success of his first full length film brought him a contract with Paramount and he began a regular pattern of making three films a year. By 1935, he was one of the top ten box office film stars and his screen persona was further cemented by films such as Pennies From Heaven and Sing You Sinners as he revealed greater depth in his acting performances. He was regularly having number one record hits and after changing radio sponsors a couple of times, he took over the Kraft Music Hall from Paul Whiteman. For ten years, the Kraft show became one of the top rated radio programmes under Bing's leadership. As the decade closed, Bing was far and away the most successful recording star, as his voice deepened into an easier and richer style after the powerful, more aggressive approach of the early thirties. He was carefully guided by Jack Kapp into singing a wide variety of material for Decca Records and this policy also helped to increase his appeal.
Bing's family life appeared to be happy and he and Dixie had four sons. His father and several of his brothers came to California to work for him and the image of the carefree and relaxed family man who enjoyed his sports activities began to develop. Bing invested heavily in the Del Mar race track and also set up his own horse breeding farm. The Bing Crosby National Pro-Am golf tournament began in 1937 and this was to raise a fortune for youth charities over the years. Bing seemed to enjoy his show business life and he participated frequently in the Hollywood social scene. This period may well have been the happiest and most artistically satisfying period of his life and he was building himself into a legend. He and Bob Hope made a film called Road to Singapore and history was in the making.
In 1933, $100 was equivalent to $950 in 1990 terms.
1940 - 1949 The Most Famous Man in the World
As the forties got underway, Bing remained as the top recording star and also as master of ceremonies of the very popular Kraft Music Hall on radio. His first Road film had been a great success and it was quickly followed by several more. He was developing well as an actor and satisfying popular demand for pleasant entertaining films featuring an apparently 'regular guy'. The outbreak of war led Bing to throw himself into war bond tours, troop entertainments and armed forces broadcasts. His workload was excessive and as the decade progressed it was said that his voice was being heard somewhere in the world every minute of every day. He was virtually the 'voice of America' as he articulated the feelings of Americans everywhere in his war time broadcasts. Films such as Holiday Inn were huge commercial triumphs and then Bing was tempted into playing a priest, Father O'Malley, in the film Going My Way. The success of that film was incredible, with Bing, to his surprise, receiving the Oscar as the best actor of the year for 1944. He was nominated again for an Oscar (this time unsuccessfully) when he reprised the role of Father O'Malley in The Bells of St. Mary's in 1945. Meanwhile his record sales reached unprecedented levels with hit following hit and the song 'White Christmas' reaching the top of the charts year after year.
If anyone had to select the year when Bing reached the peak of his popularity, it would have to be 1944 because he not only won the Oscar as best actor and was the top star at the cinema box office, but he had no less than six number one records during the year. His Kraft Music Hall radio show was also one of the top rated programmes on the air.
Bing's income was enormous during this time and he went on to invest lucratively in oil wells. He sold his Del Mar racetrack and rolled the funds over into a share of the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team. After being suspended during the war, his annual golf tournament was re-launched at Pebble Beach in 1947. The extent of Bing's fame during this period cannot be understated and he was undoubtedly the biggest name in show-business, despite the competition from some of the "newer fellas" such as Frank Sinatra. However, behind these magnificent achievements lurked a more sombre side to Bing's life.
Bing came to war-torn Europe in 1944 and undertook a very demanding tour to entertain the Armed Forces. There were signs that the heavy usage was having an adverse effect on his voice and there seemed to be problems at home with Dixie being critically ill in hospital in 1945 following what might have been a drug overdose. It was alleged that Dixie had a drink problem and there were rumours of Bing being involved with other women. He spent more and more time away from home without Dixie, including an extended visit to New York in late 1945. His health may have been under pressure as he had a spell in hospital in September 1945. The long-running Kraft contract ended after a legal battle as Bing fought to have the right to record his radio show in the same way that he had previously recorded broadcasts for the troops. He moved to Philco in 1946 and problems emerged not only with the recorded show, but also with Bing's voice which had fallen from its previous high standards. However, Bing came back strongly in 1947 after his troubles and he regained his vocal prowess, albeit with a narrower range in a lower key. The Philco show achieved good ratings although the impact of television was becoming apparent. A switch to Chesterfield in 1949 kept Bing in the forefront as a radio star, but the medium was undoubtedly starting to lose out to television as the decade ended.
Commercially the 1940s belonged to Bing but, after the war there were signs that the huge pressures on him were changing him into a more introverted personality as he started to avoid live appearances and social events. However, he managed to continue to maintain the public image of the easy-going crooner and as a film star, he was the top box office performer for a record five years. This, allied to his vast record sales, his highly-rated radio shows and the constant publicity made him, arguably, the most famous man in the world for most of the period.
In 1940, $100 was equivalent to $900 in 1990 terms.
1950 - 1959 Mid-Life Challenges
As the fifties unfolded, Bing was still a top recording artist although the hits were less frequent. Novelty songs and then rock 'n roll pushed the ballad singers into the background. Also Bing had not been helped by the death of his recording 'guru', Jack Kapp, in 1949 as this had resulted in a certain loss of structure and focus in his recording activities. In films Bing was playing older men and his radio audience, despite still being fairly significant, was steadily declining. He continued to avoid personal appearances and live shows. Bing's voice could no longer hit the higher notes but the deep tones remained mellow and pleasant. Bing was, however, said to be losing confidence in his voice. Health problems troubled him with first an operation to remove his appendix and then two separate operations for kidney problems, laying him low for a while. His wife Dixie Lee died in 1952 and this badly affected Bing both emotionally and financially. A huge tax bill had to be paid following Dixie's death and then Bing also faced a legal battle following a car crash. His sons started to hit the headlines with various problems and it was not surprising that for a while Bing seemed to be adopting a lower profile, although he continued to make films.
Bing had given two very good dramatic performances, first in Little Boy Lost and then The Country Girl for which he was again nominated unsuccessfully for an Academy Award. His film White Christmas was to be a long running success and the 1956 film High Society was to become a classic of its kind. Somewhat reluctantly, Bing had started making television appearances, which were usually filmed in advance. In 1954, his radio show had reduced in status from a major weekly programme to a daily fifteen minute show, but after the success of High Society and hit records such as 'True Love' and 'Around the World', Bing was tempted to become more heavily involved in television. The big break through came in 1957 with the live, award-winning 'Edsel Show'. Afterwards, Bing settled into a routine of making at least two TV specials each year.
After the death of Dixie Lee, Bing had gone through a lonely spell before being linked with a number of actresses including Grace Kelly, Inger Stevens, Mona Freeman and Kathryn Grant. After a most unusual on-off romance, Bing married Kathryn Grant in 1957. First a son and then, at long last, a daughter were born. Bing admitted that he had found real happiness again. The 'old' Bing seemed to re-emerge and entertaining long-playing albums of the time such as 'Bing With a Beat' and 'Fancy Meeting You Here' appeared to capture this.
Bing had safely negotiated some major mid-life challenges.
In 1950, $100 was worth $525 in 1990 terms.
1960 - 1974 The Elder Statesman
At the outset of the sixties, Bing appeared to lose weight, and he did not look at all well. In fact, he was probably in constant pain with kidney stone problems. Major surgery was necessary in 1962 and in 1963, and even then the problems continued. As always, though, Bing maintained his usual public face and as the years passed his reputation as an elder statesman of show business grew. His distinctive speaking voice was often in demand as was his ability as a raconteur. The occasional TV specials continued and drew good audiences. The frequency of Bing's film work declined, although he enjoyed considerable commercial success with his last 'Road' film and some critical acclaim as the drunken doctor in the remake of 'Stagecoach'. Recordings became less frequent as well although he did manage to make records each year.
Bing gradually reduced his work schedule to about 90 days a year, which gave him plenty of time for his various sporting activities and for his family. He had always felt that he had not given enough time to the children of his first marriage, and he tried to make sure that he did not repeat that mistake with the three children of his second marriage. Whilst his public persona was perpetuated, in his private life it appeared that he had tired of being Bing Crosby and was quietly slipping back into being ordinary Harry Crosby. As a result, it was as hard to track his movements during this period as it was in his early years in Spokane. He travelled constantly and spent much time at his new home in Las Cruces in Baja California.
After several years of indifferent health, Bing amazed almost everyone in 1964 when he agreed to appear in a weekly situation comedy series on television. The series was not a success, but Bing then picked up a steady job as one of the regular comperes of the 'Hollywood Palace' which gave him very useful exposure. His televised Christmas shows frequently attracted record audiences, but it seemed that Bing was content to gradually fade into retirement. Then in 1974, he became very seriously ill and after a major operation, part of one lung was removed. There were doubts about him ever singing again, and it was probably with some trepidation that he returned to the recording studios to work with British producer Ken Barnes......
Equivalents of $100 in 1990 terms - 1960: $425
1975 - 1977 The Final Chapter
Bing had been tempted back into the recording studios by producer Ken Barnes and quickly made three albums with him in London. He also made two LPs which he financed himself and during an extended stay in the UK in the summer of 1975, he made many appearances on radio and television shows. His appetite for show business seemed to have returned and then he decided to give a series of concerts to celebrate his 50 years as an entertainer. Starting in California, and then coming across to the London Palladium for a two-week stint, his performances were a revelation to many and Bing was clearly enjoying himself. In unusually high temperatures, he was on stage at the Palladium for most of the two and a half hours show and he finished with a 35 minute medley of his old hits with the audience joining in enthusiastically.
Bing returned to New York for another two weeks of appearances. Then in March 1977 near tragedy struck when he fell off the stage at the end of a concert in Pasadena. Bing ruptured a disc at the base of his spine and his recovery was slow. However, to everyone's surprise he agreed to continue with another tour of the UK in August and despite being in pain with his back, the somewhat frail Bing again gave some memorable performances. He then flew to Spain for a few days golf ...
During his lifetime, Bing Crosby was one of the best loved entertainers of the twentieth century. He made his name as a singer with a distinctive and innovative style, which he developed into an easy and deep-voiced delivery that convinced the average man in the street that he could sing like Bing. He helped to transform the musical scene of the early thirties, and many singers modelled themselves on him. Stars such as Frank Sinatra, Perry Como and Dean Martin always acknowledged the debt they owed to Bing. Radio and films brought Bing national prominence, and then as his film career developed, he achieved world-wide fame through his portrayals of Father O'Malley and from the Road films. His fame was unsurpassed during his peak years, but he seemed to be able to keep it all in perspective. He was the top film box office star for a record five years in the 1940s. He had over 300 chart hits in the United States, including 36 number one record hits. Bing received a plaque for sales of over 300 million records in 1960 and his recording of White Christmas stood as the most successful single for half of the 20th century.
Bing, the man, came from an ordinary background with strong religious overtones. An interesting mixture of a basically-shy man who liked to sing, he was constantly aware of what he considered to be his good fortune and in a quiet way he was involved in many charitable undertakings. A complex person who despite many difficulties, particularly those involving his health and his family, successfully maintained a public image of an easy-going likeable man throughout his life. Bing was widely read and enjoyed many different interests ranging from sports to wild life to objets d'art. His second wife described him as "a golfing priest", which was undoubtedly an understatement, but which perhaps reflected the most important things in Bing's life at that time. He had tired of the false glitter of show-business as he got older, but nevertheless he was clever enough to perpetuate his image sufficiently to keep him as active in the entertainment industry as he wanted to be in his later years. Severe difficulties in his home life during the 1940s left mental scars on the children of his first marriage, and Bing probably remained guilty about this throughout his life. He tried very hard with the children of his second marriage, and certainly the results would appear to confirm that he was successful. Bing contributed some of the lyrics to the song 'That's What Life Is All About' and how appropriate they now appear:
"My life is like an open book,
and as I glance back through the pages,
I see the chances I often took
though I was never too courageous.
Life's never easy all the time,
the hills you climb often lead nowhere.
Of ups and downs I've had my share,
that's what life is all about.
I've known success, some mild acclaim
and thinking of it gives me pleasure.
And I've had some stress, the scars remain
when Lady Luck gave me short measure.
When things went wrong I'd fake a smile,
but that's my style 'cuz I've been around,
and having been around I've found,
that's what life is all about.
It's been a joy I can't deny,
though some may think I took things lightly,
but man and boy I looked on high
and never failed to thank Him nightly.
When I look back I can't forget
the friends I've met and the things they've done,
I thank 'em all, it's been great fun.
As for me I have no doubt,
that's what life is all about."
To many, Bing's voice was the one that reminded them of precious moments in their lives, and his film image brought warmth and reassurance to people the world over. He was an ordinary man with an exceptional talent, who became a legend in his own lifetime. Even now, the playing of a Bing Crosby record will bring happiness to many, and the pleasure that he brought to so many during his lifetime can never be calculated. The name - Bing Crosby - will never be forgotten as long as singers continue to sing. This diary of an incredible life is dedicated to the most popular and durable entertainer of the twentieth century.
Grateful thanks ARE given to the following individuals and organisations who helped in bringing this project to fruition.
Ron and Vera Bosley - Sylvia Kennick Brown, College Archivist, The Whiteman Collection, Williams College, Massachusetts. - Ted Burnell - Stephanie Edwards, Special Collections Librarian, Gonzaga University - Philip R. Evans - Jean-Paul Frereault - Gary Giddins - Gary Hamann - Steve and Stan Hester - Frans van der Kolff - Pat Macfarlane - Geoffrey A. Milne - Michael O'Toole - Lionel and Joyce Pairpoint - Fred Reynolds - Mark Scrimger - Mozelle Seger - The staff at Manchester Library - The staff at the British Library, Newspaper Library, Colindale Avenue, London - Chris B. Way - Frontis B. 'Wig' Wiggins
Reference sources used to obtain the data shown in this publication include:
MAGAZINES AND NEWSPAPERS BINGANG - BING - BINGtalks - Bingville News - Crosbyana - Los Angeles Times - New York Times - Palm Beach Post - San Francisco Chronicle - The Crosby Collector - The Crosby Post - Variety
Bing Crosby: A Bio-Bibliography by J. Roger Osterholm, published by Greenwood Press 1994.
Bing Crosby And The Bing Crosby Style by Dr. J. T. H. Mize, published by Who Is Who In Music 1946
Bing Crosby 'Cremo Singer' compiled and published by Larry F Kiner in 1973.
Bing Crosby In The 30's, edited by G. D. Hamann of Filming Today Press in 1996.
Bing Crosby 'Music That Satisfies', compiled and published by L. F. Kiner in 1976.
Bing - Just For The Record by Bert Bishop and John Bassett, published in 1980 by John Joyce & Son
Bing Crosby: The Hollow Man by Donald Shepherd and Robert Slatzer, published by W. H. Allen in 1981.
Bix - The Bix Beiderbecke Story by Phil Evans and Linda K. Evans, to be published by Holcutt Publishing Company in 1997/98.
Call Me Lucky by Bing Crosby (as told to Pete Martin) published by Frederick Muller, London in 1953.
Command Performance USA! A discography by Harry Mackenzie. Published by Greenwood Press in 1996.
Going My Own Way by Gary Crosby and Ross Firestone. Published by Doubleday & Co. in 1983.
Gord Atkinson's Showbill by Gord Atkinson. Published by Creative Bound Inc. in 1996
Joel Whitburn's Pop Memories 1890 - 1954. Published by Record Research Inc. in 1986.
Jolson - The Legend Comes to Life by Herbert G. Goldman. Published by Oxford University Press in 1988.
My Life With Bing by Kathryn Crosby. Published by Quartet Books in 1983.
My Side of the Road by Dorothy Lamour. Published by Robson Books in 1980.
Philco Radio Time compiled by Lionel Pairpoint and published by the International Crosby Circle in 1980.
Pops: Paul Whiteman, King of Jazz by Thomas A Delong. Published by New Century Publishers Inc. in 1983.
Road to Hollywood by Fred Reynolds. Published by John Joyce and Son in 1986
The Bing Crosby Show for Chesterfield - a Directory compiled by Lionel Pairpoint
The Bing Crosby Show for General Electric compiled by Lionel Pairpoint.
The Complete Crosby by Charles Thompson, published by W. H. Allen & Co. Ltd. in 1978.
The Crosby Collection: Parts One to Five by Fred Reynolds. Published by John Joyce & Son.
The Crosby: Greatest Show in Golf by Dwayne Netland. Published by Doubleday & Co. in 1975
The Crosby Years by Ken Barnes. Published by Elm Tree Press in 1980.
The Fabulous Life of Bing Crosby by George Carpozi. Published by Manor Books in 1977.
The Incredible Crosby by Barry Ulanov. Published by Michael Joseph in 1948.
The Kraft Music Hall starring Bing Crosby compiled by Lionel Pairpoint in 1988.
The Story of Bing Crosby by Ted Crosby. Published by World Publishing in 1946.
Tram: The Frank Trumbauer Story by Philip Evans and Larry Kiner. Published by Scarecrow Press in 1994.